Naxalite is the name given to the radical and violent communist groups that were born out due to split in Indian Communist Movement.The word “Naxal” comes from its origin place,the village “Naxalbari” in West Bengal. The Major States affected by Naxalism are West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh etc.
Naxal ideology is based on Maoism,which says that Power and resources should be decentralised and should be distributed among commons.Naxalism wants to overthrow the Government and aim to establish the People’s rule,it claims that it fights for the downtrodden and poors who had been expolited by Government and Rich. Naxalism uses weapons and terror as a Political tool to fight for their rights.
Important Facts about Naxalism are::
- Naxalism began in 1967 with an armed peasant uprising in Naxalbari village of Darjeeling district in West Bengal. The term ‘Naxal’ came from the name of the village.
- The origin of the Naxals was a result of the split that took place in the Communist Party of India (Marxist) in 1967. It led to the formation of Communist Party of India (Marxist and Leninist).
- During the late 1960s the Communist Party of India was sharply divided on how to bring about India’s communist revolution. The party broke into two camps: those in favor of a attaining power by election, whereby the party would have the influence to provide momentum for a great urban uprising, and those in favor of utilizing the country’s vast peasant class to bring about a government-toppling armed insurrection. In 1967 Charu Mazumdar, a member of this second camp, grew tired with the Communist Party’s dithering and debates and set out to begin the revolution himself. The Naxalbari revolts were the result of his effort
- Charu Majumdaar is said to be the Father of Naxalism,he was one of the most important motivator of entire Naxal movement.He was the person who coined the term “Naxalism”.
- Majumdar was inspired by the doctrines of Mao zedog and advocated that peasants and tribals should overthrow the government and the upper class by force. His ideology was spread through his writings, particularly the “Historic Eight Documents” which finally formed the basis of naxalite ideology.
- In 1967, he was one of the main leaders of the Naxalbari Uprising.
- Naxals are spread in more than 220 districts of 20 states of India.
- This account about 40% of India’s geographical area. But it is mainly concentrated in an area known as the “Red Corridor” where they control 92,000 km2
4. Deaths and Incidents
It will be factually incorrect if we say that India failed to eradicate the Naxalism even after 50 years. Government of India and Indian Army is already succeeded in many terms to eradicate Naxalism.
Here are two maps. One is showing Naxal affected districts in 2007 while another is showing Naxal affected districts in 2013. Recently Centre government removed more 44 districts from the affected in 2018.
This is the brief of Naxalism.