Why did the war start between India and Pakistan?
Basically it was between East and West Pakistan. East Pakistan (current Bangladesh) was Bengali majority but politicians of West Pakistan made Urdu the official language without thinking of East Pakistanis who spoke Bengali language. Not only this but leaders of East Pakistan were not getting as much importance as west Pakistani (current Pakistan).East Pakistan was rich in resources but these resources were being used and money was being spent more on West Pakistan than East Pakistan. This made people of East Pakistan angry. When East Pakistan raised concern over this not, only did the Pakistani army massacre innocent people of east Pakistan. All limits of brutality was crossed in East Pakistan by Pakistani soldiers. Because of such massacre Bangladeshi (then East Pakistan) refugees started coming in India. When this number become more than lakhs it became a concern for India. It was moral duty of India to save them. The then PM Indira Gandhi told field marshal Sam Manekshaw to launch attack on East Pakistan but he refused and told that they will do this on right time.
PM Indira Gandhi visited US but president Nixon didn’t show any support towards India. That made PM Indira Gandhi to do a defence treaty with USSR.
Why did US help Pakistan?
US helped Pakistan because they thought that if India won the war with the help of USSR. Influence of USSR will increase in South Asia. As well as in South East Asia. Other than this Pakistan was major non NATO ally of the US. Pakistan was with US during cold war.
Who supported Pakistan?
Pakistan was supported by many countries like: USA, UK, France, UAE, Jordan, Turkey, Iran, Sri Lanka, Saudi Arabia.
Jordan, Turkey, Iran, UAE and France gave their aircrafts support to Pakistani airforce against IAF.
Indonesia gave a naval vessel to Pakistan for fighting against India.
Sri Lanka helped Pakistan by allowing Pakistani aircrafts to refuel at Sri Lankan air bases.
China also wanted to support but because of USSR; China did not dare to attack India neither tried to help Pakistan. And it was only the USSR who stopped US and Royal Navy from attacking India.
Why did US send Navy fleet against India?
Even after support of many countries Pakistani forces were about to lose the war. Seeing this US wanted to interfere directly in conflict.
To save Pakistan from India, US sent it’s 7th fleet of Navy in Bay of Bengal. At the same time UK sent one of it’s Navy fleet in Arabian sea.
They both wanted to attack on India but PM Indira Gandhi was smart enough. She had already done defence treaty with USSR.
USSR intelligence found that aircraft carrier Eagle of Royal Navy is coming towards Arabian sea. So USSR sent it’s 10th operative battle group to counter American and Royal Navy.
On 13th December 1971 USSR’s Navy came in Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea. And on 14th December Royal Navy aircraft carrier Eagle and America Navy’s 7th fleet came closer to Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal respectively.
But when they saw Russian/Soviet Navy defending India with nuclear submarines. Royal aircraft carrier Eagle went towards Madagascar and 7th fleet returned.
How prepared was India against US?
Though US Navy’s 7th fleet was being lead by a nuclear powered aircraft carrier USS enterprise with many nuclear powered submarines. Infact it was the most powerful Navy fleet. But brave Indian Navy was ready to fight with US with it’s aircraft carrier INS Vikrant which was leading eastern command of Indian Navy. INS Vikrant was about 1/3rd of USS enterprise.
But USSR showed it’s friendship and didn’t let US and UK attack on India.
On 15th December 1971 Indian soldiers forced Pakistani soldiers to surrender in Dhaka. This is the largest surrender of soldiers. And Bangladesh become an independent country.
The Mukti Bahini?
Mukti Bahini was group of trained civilians of East Pakistan who also fought against Pakistan. They were trained by Indian armed forces. They were fully supported by Indian forces.